Distributed cyber-infrastructures and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are transformative technologies that will play a pivotal role in the future of society and the scientific community. Internet of Things (IoT) applications harbor vast quantities of connected devices that collect a massive amount of sensitive information (e.g., medical, financial), which is usually analyzed either at the edge or federated cloud systems via AI/Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to make critical decisions (e.g., diagnosis). It is of paramount importance to ensure the security, privacy, and trustworthiness of data collection, analysis, and decision-making processes. However, system complexity and increased attack surfaces make these applications vulnerable to system breaches, single-point of failures, and various cyber-attacks. Moreover, the advances in quantum computing exacerbate the security and privacy challenges. That is, emerging quantum computers can break conventional cryptographic systems that offer cyber-security services, public key infrastructures, and privacy-enhancing technologies. Therefore, there is a vital need for new cyber-security paradigms that can address the resiliency, long-term security, and efficiency requirements of distributed cyber infrastructures.
In this work, we propose a vision of distributed architecture and cybersecurity framework that uniquely synergizes secure compu- tation, Physical Quantum Key Distribution (PQKD), NIST Post- Quantum Cryptography (PQC) efforts, and AI/ML algorithms to achieve breach-resilient, functional and efficient cybersecurity services. At the heart of our proposal lies a new Multi-Party Computation Quantum Network Core (MPC-QNC) that enables fast and yet quantum-safe execution of distributed computation protocols via integration of PQKD infrastructure and hardware- acceleration elements. We showcase the capabilities of MPC-QNC by instantiating it for Public Key Infrastructures (PKI) and federated ML in our HDQPKI and TPQ-ML, frameworks, respectively. HDQPKI (to the best of our knowledge) is the first hybrid and distributed post-quantum PKI that harnesses PQKD and NIST PQC standards to offer the highest level of quantum safety with a breach-resiliency against active adversaries. TPQ-ML presents a post-quantum secure and privacy-preserving federated ML infrastructure.